Zona NucleareThe only national site for collection of nuclear wastes in Italy,
Sogin, Personages, Rules, radioactive wastes business,
ambiguous situations of a story around which turn Millions of Euro



Il sito unico nazionale per la raccolta delle scorie nucleari , la Sogin, i Personaggi, le Norme, il business dei rifiuti radioattivi  italiano

    The only national site for collection of nuclear wastes in Italy, Sogin, Personages, Rules, radioactive wastes business  english
    Le seul site national pour la récolte des déchets nucléaires en Italie, le Sogin, les Personnages, les Règles, le business des déchets radioactifs  francais
    イタリアにおける国の統合核廃棄物処分場、la Sogin(核施設管理株式会社)、重要人物、法規、放射性廃棄物ビジネス  japanese
    El único “sitio nacional” por la recolección de la basura nuclear en Italia, la SOGIN, los personajes, las normas, el negocio de los desechos radiactivos  espanol
    Einziges Atommüll-Endlager in Italien, die SOGIN, die Mitwirkenden, die Normen, der Business des radioaktiven Abfalls  deutsch

1. I.A.E.A. report of nuclear power development in Italy
2. What is SOGIN - Nuclear Plant Management?
3. What is ANPA (now called APAT)?
4. Decommissioning in Italy - National fact sheet
5. Status of decommissioning activities of Italian Nuclear Power Plants
6. More info about Scanzano Jonico (or Ionico) and nuclear waste repository
7. Italy to send nuclear waste abroad for disposal and UK to keep foreign nuclear waste


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I.A.E.A. - Country Nuclear Power Profile - Italy Report

( 2002 Edition - It updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2001)
(This is the fourth edition of the Country Nuclear Power Profiles)

Narrative overview of nuclear power development in Italy

1 - General information

2 - Electricity sector

3 - Nuclear power situation

4 - Nuclear power industry

5 - Regulatory framework


3. Nuclear power situation

3.1. Historical Development

Italy was among the first countries in the world to use nuclear technology for civil power
generation purposes only. The Italian history of nuclear technology development can be split into three major periods:

A) pioneering period from 1946 to 1965 during which the private industry played a fundamental role;
B) planning period from 1966 to 1987, during which the Government planned nuclear development;
C) post referenda period from 1988 onward, which is characterized by the efforts to abandon nuclear energy production.

3.1.1. Pioneering Period

In November 1946, CISE (Centro Informazioni, Studi ed Esperienze) was founded, with the
participation of the elite post-war Italian industries (Edison, Montecatini, FIAT) and some of the most prominent Italian nuclear scientists. Early on, the purpose of CISE was to lay down the foundations of civil nuclear engineering and, later on, to design a natural uranium fuelled, heavy water moderated test nuclear reactor.
In June 1952, the Government established CNRN (Comitato Nazionale per le Ricerche
Nucleari), an agency in charge of developing and promoting nuclear technology. In August 1960, the agency was reorganized and renamed CNEN (Comitato Nazionale per I'Energia Nucleare).

In October 1958, the construction of the country’s first nuclear power plant, Latina, began. This 200 MW(e) gas-graphite reactor (Magnox, from magnesium alloy used in the fuel cans) was connected to the electric grid in May 1963. It was ordered by SIMEA, an ENI (Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi = Italian Hydrocarbons Board) subsidiary, and contracted from the Nuclear Power Plant Company (NPPC) of the UK. The United Kingdom’s Atomic Energy Authority was to offer support for the safety aspects.
In November 1959, construction work for the Garigliano nuclear power plant began. A Boiling Water Reactor prototype was ordered by SENN (Societa Elettro Nucleare Nazionale) from the International General Electric. In January 1964, Garigliano 150 MW(e) reactor started operation.
The Trino Vercellese nuclear power plant, a Westinghouse PWR with two separate turbine
systems, was ordered by SELNI (Societa Elettro Nucleare Italiana), a subsidiary of the Edison group.
Construction for the 260 MW(e) Trino Vercellese began in August 1961. It entered commercial operation in October 1964.
A general rule, Law 1860, to regulate peaceful use of atomic energy was issued for the first time in December 1962. This law assigned CNEN the role of the nuclear Regulatory Body and foresaw the issuance of a subsequent law for radioactive protection of population and workers.
In February 1964, the Italian Government issued a complete set of Regulations (D.P.R. 230) to cover into details the different aspects of nuclear safety and radiation protection. CNEN was confirmed as the official Regulatory Body. However, this responsibility created an inherent conflict of interests between its role as a public promoter of nuclear technology and as a Regulator. The safety criteria during the period were adopted from countries exporting nuclear technology (mainly the UK and the USA).
In 1962, after a long political struggle, the electric sector was nationalized and ENEL was
established as the sole utility. In 1964, the ownership of Latina nuclear power plant was transferred to ENEL, and, in 1966, also the Garigliano and Trino units were transferred to ENEL, hence closing the first period of the Italian nuclear history.

3.1.2. Planning Period

In December 1966, ENEL announced a huge nuclear programme forecasting 12,000 MW of nuclear power by 1980. A year later, in 1967, CIPE (Comitato Interministeriale per la Programmazione Economica = Interministerial Committee for Economic Planning) - a Committee in charge of co-ordinating the activities of Ministries involved in the country’s economic planning and of defining the nuclear programme of ENEL - reorganized the nuclear sector. Among the most important actors (all state-owned companies) were:
i) ENEL, which maintained its position as the sole utility;
ii) ENI, which was in charge of nuclear fuel;
iii) ANSALDO, which was in charge of collaborating with foreign supplier(s) and later became the Italian nuclear components supplier.

In 1967, an agreement was signed by CNEN and ENEL for developing an Italian version of the Canadian CANDU. This reactor type, called CIRENE, was designed to use heavy water as moderator and boiling water as coolant. In 1972, ANSALDO got an order to build a 40 MW(e) prototype close to the Latina nuclear power plant. CISE actively participated in the design and construction of the CIRENE reactor, which, however, never became operational due to technical problems and the lack of economic resources. Its construction was finalized only in 1988.
In 1969, ENEL decided to build a BWR (G.E. BWR 4, Mark 2) on the site of Caorso; one year later ANSALDO, in a joint venture with G.E., officially received the order. The Caorso site construction began in 1970. After several delays in implementing improvements in the suppression pool and bolstering thermal fuel performance, this 860 MW(e) unit finally started commercial operation in 1981.
In 1974, following the Yom Kippur War and the consequent oil crisis, the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Crafts (hereafter referred to as Ministry of Industry) approved a National Energy Plan that foresaw the construction of 20 nuclear power plants in order to reduce the contribution of oil on the Italian energy balance. The main effort during that period was to achieve a certain level of technological independence from the American licenser(s). Political indecision led the industry to spread technical and economic resources over five different reactor types; namely, the BWR of General Electric, the PWR of Westinghouse and Babcock types, the CANDU of AECL, and the indigenous CIRENE.

To attain the goals of the new energy plan, the Italian government in 1973, joined the EURODIF consortium. AGIP Nucleare, a subsidiary of ENI, and CNEN were in charge of providing the country with enriched uranium for fuel fabrication. Meanwhile, in 1972, ANSALDO -in a joint venture with G.E.- completed the Fabbricazioni Nucleari (Bosco Marengo) to manufacture the fuel elements for the future BWR’s. The plant can produce 100 tons of fuel annually. It entered in operation in 1976 and has produced more than 500 tons of fuel for the Italian nuclear power stations and Leibstadt nuclear power station in Switzerland.
Later, in December 1973, three major European utilities signed an agreement to build a
Superphenix, 1200 MW(e) fast breeder reactor in France. A second smaller station was planned in Federal Republic of Germany. The three original partners were Electricité de France (EdF), ENEL and Rheinisch Westfalisches Elektrizitätswerk (RWE). Subsequently RWE was substituted by Schnell - Bruter Kernkraftwerkgesellschaft (SBK), a joint enterprise of RWE, Belgian and Dutch utilities and, to a lesser extent, the British Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB). Under the terms of this agreement the NERSA company was created in 1974 to undertake the construction of the Creys- Malville station. EdF’s share of NERSA was 51%, ENEL had 33% and SBK 16%. Preliminary work on the Creys-Malville site started in December 1974. The fist concrete was laid in December 1976.
The reactor began operation in January 1986. Earlier, in 1983, construction had began for PEC (Prova Elementi di Combustible) for testing fast breeder fuel elements. This was intended to strengthen Italy’s participation in the Superphenix venture.
In 1976, Montalto di Castro was selected as the site for two new BWR’s (G.E. BWR 4, Mark 3).
The site permit was issued in 1979, exactly one month before the Three Mile Island incident. This along with the active opposition of the environmental movements, delayed the implementation of the energy plan. Moreover, ENEL faced increasing difficulties with its nuclear power stations and conventional power plants with the construction of transmission system. During the 1980’s, the nuclear option became one of the major political issues, almost completely halting all nuclear activities, despite the commitments of several energy plans.

The new National Energy Plan of 1982 reflected mixed attitudes. It called for two nuclear units at Montalto di Castro and six other units on three different sites (Piemonte, Lombardia and Puglia).
The plan also identified the development of the so-called PUN (Progetto Unificato Nazionale = Standard Nuclear Plant Project.), a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor as the final reactor type for the country. The most important characteristic of PUN design was to standardize nuclear plant design and construction. ENEA (Ente Nazionale per la ricerca e lo sviluppo dell'energia nucleare e delle Energie Alternative = Italian Commission for research and Development of Nuclear and Alternative Energy Resources, set up under
Act No. 84 of 5 March 1982 to reorganise CNEN.), formerly CNEN, was split into two major branches: ENEA responsible for research and promotion of nuclear technology; and, ENEA/DISP (=Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Health Protection), an independently acting nuclear Regulatory Body.
In 1986, a few months before the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, CIPE reaffirmed its commitment for the two BWR units at Montalto di Castro and for the six PUN type pressurized water reactors.
However, the impact of the Chernobyl disaster on public opinion was enormous and a general debate on the implications of the use of nuclear energy inflamed the contest in the political arena. In November 1987, three referenda were passed essentially stopping any activity in the nuclear sector.

3.1.3. Disengagement Period

In December 1987, CIPE halted construction of the Montalto di Castro and Piemonte plants.
These were the only two sites where construction work was effectively in progress. A nuclear moratorium period of five years became effective.
In June 1988, the Government, by Decree Nos. 230 and 324, ended all nuclear construction. The Caorso reactor, which was shut down in October 1986 for the annual refuelling remained in cold shut down for a complete safety review and assessment. In 1989, an OSART (Operational Safety Assessment Review Team, under the aegis of IAEA) inspection of the Caorso plant was conducted; but, despite of positive results of both reviews, CIPE decided, in July 1990, to close down the plant. At the same time Trino nuclear power plant was closed. The remaining units of Garigliano and Latina had already been closed down in August 1978 and November 1986, respectively.

At the same time ENEA decided to close down a number of facilities relevant to the fuel cycle:
IFEC (Impianto di Fabbricazione Elementi di Combustibile), EUREX (Enriched Uranium Extraction), ITREC (Impianto di Trattamento e Rifabbricazione Elementi di Combustibile) and the plutonium plant at its Casaccia Centre. In effect, Italy is currently inactive in the nuclear energy sector.

In the context of the privatization and of the liberalization of the electric energy market, and accordingly to a legislative Decree (Decreto legislativo n° 79 , 16 March 1999) all Enel’s liabilities and assets (and all capabilities and resources) connected to nuclear power have been assigned to a newly established company, named SO.G.I.N. (Società Gestione Impianti Nucleari, hereafter Sogin);
Sogin is operational since November 1st, 1999; its shares have been transferred in 2000 to the Ministry of Treasure (now Ministry of Economy and Finance); nevertheless, Sogin will act accordingly to guidelines issued by the Ministry of Industry (now Ministry of Productive Activities).

The mission of Sogin covers:

  • the decommissioning of the NPPs in Italy: as it is well known, all nuclear generation plants in Italy have been definitely shutdown; furthermore, Sogin has been allowed to act with joint ventures or similar co-operative initiatives in order to dismantle any other nuclear related structure in Italy: for this reason on 12 December 2000, Sogin entered into a Consortium with ENEA and Fabbricazioni nucleari (FN). The aim of the Consortium is to dismantle all plants related to the
    fuel cycle (fabrication and research plants: no installation for the back end of the cycle exist in Italy), which are property of ENEA and FN;
  • the management of the back end of the related fuel cycle;
  • the valorization of the assets such as sites, components, resources;
  • providing engineering and consultancy services in the nuclear field within the domestic and the international market.

3.2. Status and Trends of Nuclear Power

 Status and Trends of Nuclear Power in Italy

3.3. Current Policy Issues

The future of the nuclear sector remains uncertain pending development and acceptance of the new generation of enhanced safety reactors.
Main nuclear policy issues relate to the decommissioning and waste disposal facilities. The ultimate strategic goal, for the former, is unrestricted site release.
On 14 December 1999, the Italian Government, with an announcement of the Ministry of Industry, has outlined strategic choices and plans to manage the problems connected with the closure of all nuclear activities in the country. These guidelines have been submitted to the Parliament, even if a wide consensus both on political and technical bodies has raised and a high level of confidence about their confirmation should be considered.
The ministry statement outlines three main goals:

  • treatment and conditioning, within a 10 year period, of all liquid and solid radwaste currently in on-site storage, mostly issued from the operation of the plants, with a view to subsequent transport to a national waste repository;
  • Site selection and construction of a national repository for low and intermediate level wastes, also within 10 years; the same site would be used for temporary storage of high level long lived wastes, particularly spent fuel and wastes resulting from reprocessing: the final selection of a site for waste disposal facilities has not been made yet;
  • Decommissioning of the nuclear plants in about 20 years, proceeding directly to the dismantling stage in order to reach the site release with no radiological constraints.

It is worth mentioning that this announcement brings a new approach for the decommissioning: in fact, also as a consequence of the National Conference on Energy and Environment in the autumn of 1998, the deferred decommissioning strategy (Safe Store) was up to this moment the adopted and agreed strategy by Enel with the Government.
Nevertheless, during 1999 also representatives of ANPA (the Safety National Authority) have asked for the possibility of an acceleration, considering “prompt decommissioning” option to be preferred, as well taking into account dose constraints as the need of taking advantage of the reactor operational staff still available on the nuclear sites.

The policy for an immediate dismantling was confirmed with a decree of the Ministry of Industry on 2001, May 7th; this decree confirmed also the main objectives outlined in 1999 and stated the opportunity that Sogin would collaborate, under a specific convention, with the Ministry for specific items of Ministerial responsibility concerning siting and construction of the low level radioactive wastes repository.
Sogin has defined the decommissioning program according to the new guidelines of the government.
As mentioned before, the target is to reach the complete radiological release of the site within 20 years from now.

The general programme for all plants has been in principle divided into three phases:

  • The first phase will be devoted to all activities that are somewhat independent on the choosen strategy and on the availability of the national repository. Fuel storage and dismantling of BOP, of conventional buildings and lower contamination components are scheduled. In addition, all operating wastes will be conditioned. The general licensing procedure will be executed. This phase should be completed in mid 2005
  • The second phase will consider all preparatory activities and mock up realisation for the final dismantling. It will start after the beginning of the realisation of the national repository; we consider that this phase should finish in 2008-2009.
  • The third phase will be devoted to the dismantling of nuclear islands, to the transport off all wastes to the repository and to the site restoration. We consider that by the end of 2020 all sites should be released..

Of course, the objectives of this programme can be reached only if the construction of a national repository will be achieved in the due time.

For all plants, during 2001 a special effort was devoted to application for the dismantling and others licensing issue, such as EIA. In addition, many detailed projects were presented to the Safety National Authority, namely for the decontamination of primary circuits of Caorso and Trino. Main activities already performed on each plant are hereby summarised.

Garigliano (160MW BWR, operated from 1963 to 1978): the global decommissioning plan with the new strategy has been presented to initiate the decommissioning licensing procedure on august, 2001.
The plant was near to reach the safestore condition when the change of strategy occurred. The reactor is defuelled and no fuel is now on the site. The radiological characterisation has been completed. All operating wastes have been treated; no more necessary radwaste tanks have been dismantled and decontaminated.

Latina (160 MW GCR, operated since 1962 up to 1987): the global decommissioning plan for initiating the licensing procedure has been presented in Feb. 2002.
The plant has been totally defuelled; the primary circuit has been filled with dry air and blowers and portion of primary circuit outside the reactor building have been dismantled; first activities for the removal of asbestos from the turbine building were initiated.

Trino, (260 MW PWR, operated from 1965 to 1987): the global decommissioning plan with the new strategy has been presented to initiate the decommissioning licensing procedure in Dec. 2001; .the reactor has been defuelled and part of the fuel is now stored in the pool of the plant. An On site Interim storage will be realised by 2003. No major decommissioning activities have been performed, while removal of asbestos and components from the turbine building are initiated.

Caorso (850 MW BWR, operated from 1981 to 1986): the reactor has been defuelled and the fuel is now stored in the pool of the plant. An On site Interim Storage will be realised by 2004. On August 4, 2000 the Ministry of Industry issued a Decree authorising specific decommissioning activities (dry storage of irradiated fuel, dismantling of the turbine and Off-Gas, dismantling of the RHR towers, decontamination of the main circuit, treatment of previously produced waste). For other activities the global decommissioning plan has been presented on august 3rd, 2001.
Removal of asbestos and non contaminated components from the turbine building (mainly the generator) are initiated.

Planning activities together with on-site preparatory activities have continued, mainly operational wastes treatment and conditioning and the revision of the radiological inventory of the turbine.

Recently Sogin carried out a deep re-examination of the NPPs decommissioning costs estimates, also with qualified assistance of international advisors. First assessments indicate a total amount of about2600 MEURO for the total decommissioning of the 4 NPPs (constant money 2001, including fuel and wastes management and disposal costs)
As for funding the decommissioning, in the ’80, even if there were no precise law disposition in this specific matter, Enel has created a fund for the plants decommissioning and a fund for the irradiated fuel management. A setting aside pluriannual plan has been defined and cumulated funds were transferred to Sogin at the date of its constitution. This amount was adequate to complete decommissioning activities within the Safe Store strategy.
Following the separation of Sogin from Enel, a funding mechanism has been defined to provide resources for additional costs deriving from the different economic conditions (new discount rate and taxes), from the management costs for the new company, and from the change in strategy (from Safe Store to DECON.

A Decree of the Ministry of the Industry issued on 2000, January 26th, states that above mentioned extra costs for Sogin shall be financed on a levy on the price of the sold kWh. Every year Sogin shall present the program of future activities, with associated costs: on this basis, the national Authority for Electric energy and Gas (the National body which defines tariff politics ) shall re-evaluate the levy on kWh due to Sogin for next three years; this re-evaluation will take into account economic efficiency criteria.
The same procedure is foreseen by the Decree in order to finance the dismantling of nuclear installation now property of ENEA and co-ordinated by the above mentioned Consortium.

3.4. Organizational Chart(s)

In the framework of Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste management in Italy, the
competent national bodies are the following:

  • Ministry for Productive Activities
    The Ministry for Productive Activities (formerly of Industry) is the authority that issues the operating licence for all nuclear and radioactive installations, after the positive technical advice of ANPA. For installations related to radioactive waste storage and disposal, the concerted agreement of the Ministries of Environment, Internal Affairs, Welfare, and Health is also required.
  • ANPA (National Agency for Environmental Protection)
    ANPA is responsible for the regulation and supervision (by inspection) of nuclear installations in matters of nuclear safety and radiation protection. Any licence granted by the Ministry for Productive Activities incorporate the corresponding preceptive and legally binding report of ANPA. It is a body governed by public law with administrative and financial autonomy, under the supervision of the Ministry of the Environment.
  • Technical Commission for Nuclear Safety and Health Protection from Ionizing Radiations
    This Commission is composed of experts from ENEA, ANPA, and from various Ministries, and gives technical advice concerning the granting of licences for nuclear installations.

Regulatory function
Authorization is formally granted by the Ministry for Productive Activities based on ANPA technical judgements and prescriptions.

The main tasks of ANPA to fulfil the obligations of the Legislative Decree no. 241/2000 are:
- controls and inspections on existing nuclear installations,
- licensing on new nuclear installations,
- controls and inspections on possession, commerce, transportation, utilisation, dismission of radioactive material,
- controls and inspections on radioactive waste management,
- radioprotection of workers, public, environment,
- nuclear emergency preparedness,
- fulfilment of International Agreements on control and surveillance of nuclear materials (e.g.: Safeguards regime, Additional Protocol),
- promotion of international co-operation in the field of nuclear safety and radiation protection,
- promotion of actions aimed at maintaining and improving the national know-how and the national safety culture in the field of nuclear safety and radiation protection.

In addition to these duties, ANPA has also to:
- support the State Administrations to issue specific decrees for the implementation of the fundamental nuclear laws, specific technical guides,
- realize a National Database on all nuclear applications.

ANPA responsibilities for the licensing process of nuclear installations include:
- assessment of the safety analysis carried out by the operating organisation
- inspection of equipment and materials during the design, construction and operational phases for the systematic verification of facility operation safety
- enforcement action to remedy any failure to meet both the licensing conditions and any safety operation criteria







(usa il motore di ricerca e trovi quello che vuoi nelle oltre 800 pagine del sito)

1. Cosa è la radioattività? e i suoi effetti?
2. L' uomo, le radiazioni corpuscolari ed elettromagnetiche, le radiazioni ionizzanti
3. Le applicazioni della radioattività e delle radiazioni ionizzanti
4. Cosa sono le scorie nucleari?
5. Cosa sono i rifiuti radioattivi? (definizione, classificazione, origine)
6. La gestione dei rifiuti radioattivi

7. Documentazione scientifica in merito alla materia "rifiuti nucleari"
8. Come si effettua rilevamento e la misurazione della radioattività? (cenni normativi, strumenti, unità di misura)

1. La scelta del sito per il deposito di rifiuti nucleari: dall' Enea alla Sogin
2. Scorie nucleari. Il Commissario e la Commissione
3. Il decreto-legge n. 314/03 e la legge di conversione n.368/03
Accordi, norme e raccomandazioni internazionali che non sono state rispettate nella legge 368/03
Risoluzione del Comitato delle Regioni (organo UE) n. 251 del 1998
6. Il Progetto europeo COMPAS
7. Riferimenti normativi in merito alla materia "rifiuti nucleari"
8. Guida Tecnica n. 26 - La gestione dei rifiuti radioattivi

9. Le Direttive Europee che disciplinano l’ accesso del pubblico all’ informazione ambientale
10. Il diritto alle informazioni e ai processi decisionali e le sue basi normative
1. La commissione parlamentare d' inchiesta Scalia
2. La Task Force Enea
3. L' Inventario   Nazionale dei Rifiuti Radioattivi - ENEA 2000
4. Il GIS (Sistema Informativo Geografico) della Task Force Enea
5. Il GIS (Sistema Informativo Geografico) del GSP3 - SITO
6. Carlo Jean, un Generale molto militare, poco nucleare...
7. I mille incarichi del prof. Paolo Togni - vice della Sogin e tanto altro...
8. La Sogin Spa e il nucleare in Italia
9. Le attività della Sogin
10. Il parere che Carlo Rubbia ha esposto in Parlamento
Il parere degli esperti: J.K. Mitchell, B. De Vivo, P.Risoluti, T. Regge
12. Quali fattori per la scelta: scientifici? ...o forse politici?
13. Il referendum sul nucleare del 1987
14. Mappa degli attuali depositi di materiale radioattivo in Italia
La situazione in Italia dei rifiuti radioattivi
16. Studio Sogin per la localizzazione del sito a Scanzano Ionico - relazione integrale
17. Studio Sogin per la localizzazione del sito a Scanzano Ionico - appendice finale
18. Workshop internazionale sul decommissioning degli impianti nucleari - Roma 2004
1. L' ecomafia dei rifiuti in Italia
2. Il traffico di materiale ferroso contaminato alle fonderie
3. Navi affondate e sospetti: i traffici di rifiuti pericolosi e radioattivi
4. La legge-delega sull'ambiente: effetti, personaggi, valutazioni
5. Il Ministro dell’Ambiente Matteoli: paralisi o no?

6. La costruzione del "sito unico": l'Impregilo e la B.N.L. in prima linea?
7. A Taranto una base USA per i sottomarini nucleari?
8. Il rischio attentati terroristici legati ai depositi di scorie radioattive
1. La situazione in Europa dei rifiuti radioattivi
2. I depositi per lo smaltimento dei rifiuti nucleari nel mondo
Il problema delle scorie radioattive in USA

4. Il problema delle scorie radioattive in Russia
5. L'impianto di Sellafield in Gran Bretagna per il trattamento di rifiuti nucleari
Lo smantellamento degli arsenali nucleari, l' uranio altamente arricchito (HEU), il plutonio e il mox
7. Il costo per la conservazione e lo smaltimento definitivo del materiale radioattivo
1. Lo smaltimento sotto i fondali marini
La "trasmutazione" dei nuclei radioattivi a vita media-lunga in elementi stabili e il "motore" di Rubbia

3. Il Sole come discarica per le scorie nucleari
4. L'uso civile e bellico dell' uranio impoverito (il "prodotto di scarto")
5. Il batterio che ripulisce dalla radioattività




last update January 2006     ::     online since 19 December 2003