Decommissioning in Italy
(The Decommissioning and Dismantling of
Nuclear Facilities in OECD/NEA Member Countries - Italian National
fact sheet by ANPA)
Present Status of the Italian nuclear installations
Legal and Regulatory Framework
The initial strategy
Government strategy change and the role of SOGIN
Current programs and main issues
The management of radioactive wastes and spent
The National repository
3. The initial strategy
When the Interministerial Committee for
the Economical Planning (CIPE), a Governmental Body in charge of the
strategic decisions on NPP’s, decided the definitive closure of all
NPP’s, at the same time it instructed their owner and licensee, i.e.
the National Electric Company ENEL, to start the actions for their
decommissioning, according to the "Safe Enclosure" strategy.
However, all necessary consequent acts to support this strategy, and
specifically funding mechanisms were not in place.
Other fundamental problems were not solved (and they are not yet
– a national site for the disposal of low and intermediate level waste;
– a centralised interim storage facility for spent fuel and high level
Another difficulty was the uncertainty
in the definition of the rules for the management of very low level
waste (clearance levels).
A substantial novelty in the field was the Legislative Decree no. 230,
issued only in 1995, including new, specific rules on the
decommissioning of nuclear plants.
In this situation the decommissioning operations on shut down power
plants underwent significant delays and all nuclear installations were
practically maintained in safe conditions only for several years.
Meanwhile consideration has been given
to the possibility of a change of strategy, taking into account:
- he lack of significant occupational
dose advantages in deferring decommissioning for decades, after the
- the risk of losing the necessary
specific competences in a country without an active nuclear program
for energy generation
- the possibility of site reuse for
industrial purposes, claimed also by many Local Authorities.
At the same time ENEA, the Italian
State Agency for Research in the nuclear field among others, started
with the conditioning of the existing wastes in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
installations, plagued by the financial problems, since funds have not
been accumulated for their decommissioning. Therefore the most
important issues were not addressed with the necessary emphasis.